Science has been making new Achievements with the advancements in technology. With new research in medicine, many new discoveries have been done in the last decade. These achievements in the field of medicine hold much importance. Scientists have been trying very hard since many years to achieve major achievements and have faced many hurdles and failures in the way.
With the passage of time, new diseases have emerged and require new interventions. However there are breakthrough medical advances that require specific appreciation and are the signs of due progress in the field of medicine.
The ten major achievements of medical in the 20th century following described.
10. Early Detection of Parkinson’s Disease
Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by tremors in the body, rigidity and slowing of the body movement. As the disease progress patient experiences changes in the higher mental function like loss of smell, snake like faces and affected body movements owing to the damage to neurons in brain. Basal ganglia in the brain are mainly affected leading to the neurotransmitter imbalance. Earlier, the disease was detected and diagnosed at later stages when it is nearly incurable just like Alzheimer’s disease.
In the last decade a medical achievements was done. It was found that some special proteins are released in the spinal fluid of the person suffering from Parkinson’s. These proteins act as biomarkers and are considered the fingerprints of Parkinson’s disease in the early stages of the disease. So the treatment may be started early and can have retarding effects on the progression of disease which is not less than a achievements.
9. Bionic Limb
Bionics is the field of science that involves the utilization of certain biological methods that occur naturally applied according to the modern technology. Owing to the infections and increased incidence of diabetes, the ratio of amputations has increased more than ever. It required a breakthrough in medical field to deal with such crippling condition that makes you handicapped for life.
Amputees live a miserable life. To deal with this, bionic limbs have been introduced in the last decades that are not less than a achievements. Bionic hands, bionic foot, bionic legs or arm can be implanted as prosthetics. These bionic limbs can be applied easily using iPad app and synchronization of the movements is done with the help of computer chips and Bluetooth devices. The achievements in the medical field is not less than a blessing for amputees, as they don’t only help in performing movements but also makes them feel as real as possible.
8. Face Transplant
One of the major achievements that occurred in the 20th century is the introduction of face transplant. The idea of transplantation is very old. Organ transplantation is not a new concept in the field of medicine. Kidney transplants, liver transplant, lung and even heart transplants are major achievements in the field of medicine and are showing improvements rapidly in the methods and overcoming the rejections occurred during transplantation.
The face transplant was done for the first time in the year 2005, and it was a partial transplant. Later on the achievements of full facial transplant was done in Spain on a man who damaged his face completely during an accident. The man was given a new nose, lips, cheekbones and teeth and the process was completed in 24 hours. In United States full transplant was done in the year 2008. New advancements are under process.
7. Hair Transplantation
Baldness has been a major medical issue, which in terms of medicine is called alopecia. Loss of hair may be because of aging, major burns or any other skin disease that destroys hair follicles. The growth of new hair was considered impossible a few years before when a achievements in medicine was done and hair follicle transplantation was introduced. The research was conducted at Columbia University that concluded that the hair follicles are transplanted that contains the roots of new hair and upside down cells that surround them.
The experimental procedure involved the transplantation of foreskin patches from circumcised babies into mice. The reason to use foreskin was that it contains no hair follicles of its own so that they may not get confused with the native hair follicles. The new roots in the foreskin were sprouted and hair growth took place from the follicles, which was not less than a achievements for hairless people.
6. HPV Vaccination
Vaccination against viruses was a major issue if we go back in time. Viral diseases were a killer back in time as the organism could not be detected but with the passage of time, new advancements and achievements were done to diagnose and treat viral illness. Similarly a fatal virus, human papilloma virus is the main causative agent of genital warts and cervical carcinoma. The vaccination was established against it but it was to be given in three separate doses and most of the people could not complete their full course of the vaccination.
However a recent achievements in the medical field has shown that a single dose of HPV vaccine can be enough. This effective vaccine generate antibodies up to 24 times than produced by the infection in the body and can provide protection against infection from HPV. The role of this vaccine in prevention of cancer is still controversial but it is a achievements without any doubt.
5. Laparoscopic Surgery
Surgeries are the most important part of medical world. The methods of surgeries have been modified to better ways to prevent the complications and debility of patient. In the last decade, a achievements was done in surgical method that is known as laparoscopic surgery. Minimally invasive surgery is the other name of this procedure.
It involves the performance of the procedure through laparoscopic instruments by making ports in the body and procedure is performed under laparoscopic vision using camera. This type of surgery is widely used to remove gallbladder, hernia operations and appendectomy. This is one of the great achievements and still working on other modifications like laparoscopic surgeries through natural orifices.
4. Targeted Cancer Therapies
Cancer treatments have become very advanced in the last decade by the introduction of targeted cancer therapies. This is not less than a breakthrough in the treatment of carcinoma. The drugs used in targeted therapies affect the cancerous cells. Some of these drugs identify the cancerous cells and kill them, whereas other drugs affect the growth of cancerous cells by affecting tumor growth.
Targeted cancer therapies are definitely counted as achievements in the last decade owing to their much more effectiveness than radiotherapy and chemotherapy which also destroy the normal cells. Up till now around 30 drugs have been introduced and approved for targeted therapies. However this cannot be used in every person and depends upon the disease of individual.
3. Stem Cells Research
The undifferentiated cells of our body are called the stem cells that have ability to be programmed into any other type of body cells as all the specific cells are formed by differentiation of stem cells. This idea of stem cell has been utilized to bring forth a achievements in medical world. Stem cells have been used to cure the diseases and repair the damaged cells.
The research conducted in the year 2006 showed that any kind of cell that has been differentiated can be dedifferentiated to be turned into stem cells again which are known as induced pluripotent stem cells. This was not less than a achievements, and even dead cells can also be used. There has been a lot of work on cloning the human stem cells that can be utilized for heart disease and eye problems
2. Success in Treating HIV
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes one of the incurable disease AIDS. Scientists have been working hard for many years to protect against this lethal syndrome and treat it. But no achievements had been done regarding this until a pediatrician; Dr. Hannah was able to cure a 2 years old baby and made him free of infection. The baby acquired the infection from his mother and he had the signs and symptoms of the illness. Both the baby and the mother were given single dose anti retroviral at the time of delivery.
Later on Dr. Hannah gave the baby three different anti HIV drugs that acted miraculously and led to the shedding of virus. This combination of complex anti HIV drugs was combined into a single pill called cocktail pill. The baby became infection free and research showed that around sixty percent of the viral load remains dormant in the body which can lead to devastating disease. This success is not less than a achievements, and a new combination of four such drugs was approved in 2013.
1. Biggest Achievements of Medical is Human Genome
Human Genome project has been under consideration for so long. Since the diagnosis of genetic diseases due to abnormality in the chromosomes, scientists have been working hard to know about the human genome to know about the genes responsible for disease. Not only this, if we know the genes sequence, it can be used to make other breakthroughs in genetic and biotechnology. In the last decade, a achievement was done. In April 2003, the complete sequencing of human genome was announced.
The order of genes present in human genome made around 3 billion letters which is called as the book of life. This sequencing of the genes has allowed the scientists to know about even a single gene responsible for the disease and thus help in better treatment. Indeed it is the biggest breakthrough in the medical world that looked like a dream earlier. Scientists are working on Human Microbiome Project to comprehend the complexity of bacterial systems in our bodies which is waiting for another achievements.