Dinosaur
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Dinosaur (disambiguation).
Dinosaurs
Temporal range: Late Triassic–Present, 231.4 – 0 Mya
PreЄЄOSDCPTJKPgN
Dinosauria montage 2.jpg
A collection of fossil dinosaur skeletons. Clockwise from top left: Microraptor gui (a winged theropod), Apatosaurus louisae (a giant sauropod), Edmontosaurus regalis (a duck-billed ornithopod), Triceratops horridus (a horned ceratopsian), Stegosaurus stenops (a plated stegosaur), Pinacosaurus grangeri (an armored ankylosaur).
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Dinosauriformes
Clade: Dinosauria
Owen, 1842
Major groups
†Ornithischia
†Ornithopoda
†Thyreophora
†Marginocephalia
Saurischia
†Sauropodomorpha
Theropoda
Dinosaurs are a diverse group of animals of the clade Dinosauria. They first appeared during the Triassic period, 231.4 million years ago, and were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates for 135 million years, from the start of the Jurassic (about 200 million years ago) until the end of the Cretaceous (66 million years ago),[1] when the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event led to the extinction of most dinosaur groups at the end of the Mesozoic Era. The fossil record indicates that birds are modern feathered dinosaurs, having evolved from theropod ancestors during the Jurassic Period.[2] As such, birds were the only dinosaurs to survive the extinction event that occurred 66 million years ago.[3]

Dinosaurs are a varied group of animals from taxonomic, morphological and ecological standpoints. Birds, at over 10,000 living species,[4] are the most diverse group of vertebrates besides perciform fish.[5] Using fossil evidence, paleontologists have identified over 500 distinct genera[6] and more than 1,000 different species of non-avian dinosaurs.[7] Dinosaurs are represented on every continent by both extant species and fossil remains.[8] Some are herbivorous, others carnivorous. While dinosaurs were ancestrally bipedal, many extinct groups included quadrupedal species, and some were able to shift between these stances. Elaborate display structures such as horns or crests are common to all dinosaur groups, and some extinct groups developed skeletal modifications such as bony armor and spines. Evidence suggests that egg laying and nest building are additional traits shared by all dinosaurs. While modern dinosaurs (birds) are generally small due to the constraints of flight, many prehistoric dinosaurs were large-bodied—the largest sauropod dinosaurs are estimated to have reached lengths of over 40 meters (130 feet)[9] and heights of 18 meters (59 feet)[10][11] and were the largest land animals of all time. Still, the idea that non-avian dinosaurs were uniformly gigantic is a misconception based in part on preservation bias, as large, sturdy bones are more likely to last until they are fossilized. Many dinosaurs were quite small: Xixianykus, for example, was only about 50 cm (20 in) long.

Although the word dinosaur means “terrible lizard”, the name is somewhat misleading, as dinosaurs are not lizards. Instead, they represent a separate group of reptiles that, like many extinct forms, did not exhibit characteristics traditionally seen as reptilian, such as a sprawling limb posture or ectothermy. Additionally, many prehistoric animals, including mosasaurs, ichthyosaurs, pterosaurs, plesiosaurs, and Dimetrodon, are popularly conceived of as dinosaurs, but are not taxonomically classified as dinosaurs. Through the first half of the 20th century, before birds were recognized to be dinosaurs, most of the scientific community believed dinosaurs to have been sluggish and cold-blooded. Most research conducted since the 1970s, however, has indicated that all dinosaurs were active animals with elevated metabolisms and numerous adaptations for social interaction.

Since the first dinosaur fossils were recognized in the early 19th century, mounted fossil dinosaur skeletons have been major attractions at museums around the world, and dinosaurs have become an enduring part of world culture. The large sizes of some groups, as well as their seemingly monstrous and fantastic nature, have ensured dinosaurs’ regular appearance in best-selling books and films, such as Jurassic Park. Persistent public enthusiasm for the animals has resulted in significant funding for dinosaur science, and new discoveries are regularly covered by the media.

Contents [hide]
1 Etymology
2 Definition
2.1 General description
2.2 Distinguishing anatomical features
3 Evolutionary history
3.1 Origins and early evolution
3.2 Evolution and paleobiogeography
4 Classification
4.1 Taxonomy
5 Biology
5.1 Size
5.1.1 Largest and smallest
5.2 Behavior
5.3 Communication
5.4 Reproductive biology
5.5 Physiology
6 Origin of birds
6.1 Feathers
6.2 Skeleton
6.3 Soft anatomy
6.4 Behavioral evidence
7 Extinction of major groups
7.1 Impact event
7.2 Deccan Traps
7.3 Possible Paleocene survivors
8 History of study
8.1 “Dinosaur renaissance”
8.2 Soft tissue and DNA
8.3 Timeline of notable dinosaur taxonomic descriptions
9 Cultural depictions
10 See also
11 Notes and references
12 Further reading
13 External links